четверг, 29 октября 2009 г.

TOURISM

Practically all people, irrespective of their incomes and a way of life, dream of rest. Thus the majority of them as the most comprehensible kind of rest will name tourism. Today travel companies offer a huge choice of routes for rest and travel. You can get the permit in sanatorium, have a rest in comfortable hotel or go to automobile travel. Rest in small family hotel where the house comfort and a home cookery will be offered you is possible also . If you are the convinced supporter of productive leisure – for you great opportunities open to test the endurance and force, and also to be loaded by energy and to lift adrenaline level in blood. A choice for you!

Afghanistan.


OFFICIAL NAME: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
CAPITAL: Kabul
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary Islamic State
AREA: 647,497 Sq Km (251,773 Sq Mi)
ESTIMATED 2010 POPULATION: 28,926,000



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: Afghanistan is a landlocked country in South West Asia. It is bound by Pakistan to the east and south, Iran to the west, Turkmenistan to the northwest, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan to the north and China to the northeast. The country is divided from southeast to northwest by the Hindu Kush and Pamir Mountain Ranges and is divided into three geographical regions. (1.) The central highlands which account for 64% of the land area and are part of the Himalayan Ranges. The Hindu Kush ridge rises above 6,400 metres (21,000 feet). (2.) The fertile northern plains with elevations of up to 600 metres (2,000 feet). (3.) The southwestern plateau which accounts for 25% of the land area and is an arid region vegetated mostly by scrub with an average elevation of about 900 metres (3,000 feet). The principal rivers are the Kabul and Amu-Darya which rises in the Hindu Kush and flows northwestward. Major Cities (pop. est.); Kabul 2,800,000, Kandahar 324,000, Herat 255,000, Mazar-e Sharif 188,000 (2004). Land Use; forested 2%, pastures 46%, agricultural-cultivated 12%, other 39% (2000).


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


CLIMATE: Afghanistan has a continental dry climate with large differences between day and night temperatures as well as quick seasonal transitions. Summer temperatures in the plains can reach 46 degrees Celsius (115 degrees Fahrenheit) while in the higher plateaux winter temperatures can fall to -26 degrees Celsius (-15 degrees Fahrenheit). The "Winds of 120 Days" which occur between June to September can have velocities of up to 180 kmph (108 mph) and the rainy season is from October to April, although rainfall is very irregular. Average temperature ranges in Kabul are from -8 to 2 degrees Celsius (18 to 36 degrees Fahrenheit) in January to 16 to 33 degrees Celsius (61 to 91 degrees Fahrenheit) in July.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


PEOPLE: The principal ethnic majority are the Pushtuns also known as Pukhtuns and Pathan who account for around 49% of the population and are divided into two sub-tribes (1.) the Durranis and (2.) the Ghilzais. The principal ethnic minority are the Tajikis who account for almost 18% of the population. Other smaller ethnic minorities include the Hazara Mongols (Hazars) who account for 9%, Aimaks, Uzbekis, Turkmens, Nuristanis and Qisilbashes.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


DEMOGRAPHIC/VITAL STATISTICS: Population; 23,867,000 (2005) Density; 37 persons per sq km (96 persons per sq mi) (2004). Urban-Rural; 22.4% urban, 77.6% rural (2003). Sex Distribution; 51.2% male, 48.8% female (1004). Life Expectancy at Birth; 42.3 years male, 42.7 years female (2004). Age Breakdown; 45% under 15, 27% 15 to 29, 16% 30 to 44, 8% 45 to 59, 3.5% 60 to 74, 0.5% 75 and over (2004). Birth Rate; 47.3 per 1,000 (2004). Death Rate; 21.1 per 1,000 (2004). Increase Rate; 26.2 per 1,000 (2004). Infant Mortality Rate; 166.0 per 1,000 live births (2004).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


RELIGIONS: The official religion is Islam with approximately 89% of the population Sunni Muslims while 9% are Shiite Muslims and 1% belong to the other Islamic sects. Other religious minorities include small amounts of Hindus, Sikhs and Parsis.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


LANGUAGES: The official languages are Dari (Afghan Persian) and Pashto. A little English, French and German is also spoken while English and French are taught in schools as secondary languages. In the north Turkmen and Uzbeki are also widely spoken.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


EDUCATION: Aged 25 or over and having attained: no formal schooling 88.5%, some primary 6.8%, complete primary 0.3%, some secondary 1.2%, higher 3.2% (1980). Literacy; literate population aged 15 or over 29% (2003).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


MODERN HISTORY - WWII TO 1993: In 1953 Mohammed Daoud Khan became Prime Minister, following which he established close military, economic and political ties with the USSR. In 1964 provisions were made for the establishment of a constitutional monarchy after Prime Minister Daoud resigned. In 1973 while King Zahir Shah was receiving medical treatment in Italy a military coup led by Daoud overthrew the government, established a republic and abolished the monarchy. On Apr. 27, 1978 pro-Soviet leftists took power in a bloody coup known as the "Great Saur Revolution" which resulted in the death of President Daoud and an economic and military treaty with the USSR. In Dec. 1979, the USSR began a massive military airlift into Kabul and the three month old regime of Hafizullah Amin ended with a Soviet backed coup on Dec. 27, 1979. Pres. Amin was replaced by Babrak Karmal, a greater pro-Soviet faction leader. For the next 9 years the Soviet troops fanned out over Afghanistan fighting the Muslim "Holy Warriors" or Mujaheddin in a long, protracted guerrilla war. In Nov. 1987 Dr. Najibullah was elected President. On Apr. 14, 1988 a UN-mediated agreement was signed which provided for the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, the creation of a neutral Afghan state and the repatriation of millions of Afghan refugees. The US and USSR pledged to serve as guarantors of the agreement, however, Afghan rebels rejected the pact and vowed to continue fighting while the Soviets remained in Afghanistan. On Feb. 15, 1989 the Soviets completed their troop withdrawal as fighting between the Afghan rebels and government forces escalated for control of the government. In Mar. 1990 there was an unsuccessful coup attempt led by Afghan military forces and in Sept. 1991 the US and USSR declared that they would halt arms supplies from Jan. 1992 with the purpose of achieving a permanent cease-fire. In Apr. 1992 Afghan rebels with the assistance of General Abdul Rashid Dostam, leader of the government's secret police, seized control of Kabul ousting President Najibullah's regime. On June 28, 1992 caretaker President Sibgatullah Mojadedi surrendered power to Burhanuddin Rabbani who headed a 10-member Supreme Leadership Council of guerrilla leaders. In June 1992 fighting escalated between rival Shiite and Sunni Muslim factions around Kabul with some 100 people killed and 1,000 injured in four days of conflict. On Dec. 30, 1992 some 1,335 delegates from around the country formed a National Council which met in Kabul and elected Rabbani to a two-year term as president. The majority of the rebels boycotted the council meeting and shelled the city from their hill strongholds while voting was in progress. In Jan. 1993 the national assembly of tribal and religious leaders reaffirmed Rabbani's presidency, approved the creation of new armed forces and a parliament, and set out a strict Islamic path for the country. In Mar. 1993 Gulbuddin Hekmatyar leader of the Hezb-i-Islami was designated Prime Minister with a 22-member cabinet divided amongst the 10 major rebel groups being formed on May 20 despite continuing fighting. On June 17. 1993 Hekmatyar was formally sworn in and on Sept. 27, 1993 after four days of negotiations an interim constitution had been approved with planned elections announced for 1994.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


CURRENCY: The official currency is the Afghani (Af) divided into 100 Puls.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


ECONOMY: Gross Domestic Product; USD $7,000,000,000,000 (2003). Public Debt; USD $5,319,000,000 (2000). Imports; USD $2,101,000,000 (2004). Exports; USD $144,000,000 (2004). Tourism Receipts; USD $1,000,000 (1998). Balance of Trade; USD$ -1,957,000,000 (2004). Economically Active Population; 5,557,000 or 29.4% of total population (1994). Unemployed; 30% (2004).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its main trading partners are the China, Pakistan, India, Japan and Russia.

MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Barley, Coal, Copper, Cotton, Fruit, Goats, Iron, Maize, Natural Gas, Nuts, Rice, Sheep, Sugar, Vegetables, Wheat.

MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Agriculture, Bicycles, Carpets, Cement, Food Processing, Footwear, Fur and Leather Products, Furniture, Plastics, Textiles.

MAIN EXPORTS: Carpets, Cotton, Fruit, Karakul Skins and Wool, Natural Gas, Nuts.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


TRANSPORT: Railroads; route length 25 km (15.3 mi) (2001). Roads; length 20,720 km (12,875 mi) (2001). Vehicles; cars 176,700 (2004), trucks and buses 116,278 (2004). Merchant Marine; vessels nil. Air Transport; passenger-km 143,000,000 (88,856,000 passenger-mi) (2000), cargo ton-km 21,000,000 (13,048,000 short ton-mi) (2000).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


COMMUNICATIONS: Daily Newspapers; total circulation of 129,000 (2000). Radio; receivers 2,950,000 (2000). Television; receivers 362,000 (2000). Telephones; units 36,700 (2003). Cell/Mobile; subscribers 135,000 (2003). Internet; users 700 ( 2003).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


MILITARY: 13,000 (2004) total active duty personnel with 100% army, 0.0% navy and 0.0% air force while military expenditure accounts for 9% (2003) of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Albania.


OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of Albania
CAPITAL: Tirane
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Unitary Multiparty Republic
AREA: 28,748 Sq Km (11,100 Sq Mi)
ESTIMATED 2000 POPULATION 3,875,200



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: Albania is one of the smallest nations in Europe. It is bound by the Adriatic Sea to the west, Serbia and Montenegro to the north and northeast, Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast. Just over 20% of the land area is coastal or flat plains which are poorly drained while the major cities are located on the coastal plains or in the upland valleys. The remainder of the country is mountainous and hilly covered by scrub forest while there are many lagoon lakes in the lowlands as well as small glacial lakes in the uplands. The principal river is the Buene River. Major Cities (pop. est.); Tirane 243,000, Durres 85,000, Elbasan 83,000, Shkoder 82,000, Vlore 74,000 (1990). Land Use; forested 37%, pastures 15%, agricultural-cultivated 24%, other 24% (1993).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


CLIMATE: Albania has a Mediterranean climate with the coastal plains experiencing hot and dry summers, and frequent thunderstorms. Winters are mild as well as wet and can be quite severe in the mountains with snow cover lasting for long periods of time. Average annual precipitation in the mountain areas can exceed 1,000 mm (39 inches). The average temperature ranges in Tirane are from 17 to 31 degrees Celsius (63 to 88 degrees Fahrenheit) in July to 2 to 21 degrees Celsius (36 to 54 degrees Fahrenheit) in January.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------



PEOPLE: The principal ethnic majority are the Albanians who account for around 98% of the population and are divided into two groups (1.) the Gegs (Ghegs) to the north of the Shkumbin River and (2.) the Tosks to the south. Other ethnic minorities include Greeks, Macedonians, Vlachs, Bulgarians, Gypsies and Serbs.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


DEMOGRAPHIC/VITAL STATISTICS: Density; 115 persons per sq km (298 persons per sq mi) (1991). Urban-Rural; 35.8% urban, 64.2% rural (1989). Sex Distribution; 51.5% male, 48.5% female (1989). Life Expectancy at Birth; 69.6 years male, 75.5 years female (1989). Age Breakdown; 33% under 15, 29% 15 to 29, 19% 30 to 44, 12% 45 to 59, 6% 60 to 74, 2% 75 and over (1990). Birth Rate; 24.7 per 1,000 (1989). Death Rate; 5.7 per 1,000 (1989). Increase Rate; 19.0 per 1,000 (1989). Infant Mortality Rate; 28.2 per 1,000 live births (1987).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


RELIGIONS: Mostly Muslims which account for around 21% of the population, while some Christians both Orthodox and Roman Catholics account for 5.4% and the remainder are atheist. Prior to 1944's communist takeover approximately 70% of the population were Muslims, 20% were Orthodox Christians and 10% were Roman Catholic.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


LANGUAGES: The official language is Albanian with two dialects (1.) Geg (Gheg) to the north of the Shkumbin river and (2.) Tosk to the south.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


EDUCATION: Aged 25 or over and having attained: primary education 74.7%, secondary 20.9%, higher 4.4% (1979). Literacy; literate population aged 15 or over virtually 100% (1989).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


MODERN HISTORY - WWII TO 1993: Albania was proclaimed a republic on Jan. 11, 1946. In 1948 the Friendship Treaty between Albania and Yugoslavia was canceled due to serious conflict in Soviet dominated Communist Information Bureau. During the 1950's Yugoslav-Albanian diplomatic relations were broken off, although they were later resumed in 1953. In 1955 Albania was admitted to the UN as part of a general agreement between the East and West. Soviet influence was replaced by a strong political alliance with China which led to several billion dollars in financial aid, although China cut off the aid in 1978. From 1985 to 1990 diplomatic relations with most European nations as well as the former USSR and the US were resumed. In 1990 the government announced plans for gradual democratization with the lifting of religious restrictions and the freedom to travel abroad. By the close of 1990 the regime agreed to free multiparty elections to take place in Mar. 1991. Within days after the elections, protests and general industrial strikes forced the communist cabinet to resign and share power with the Democratic Party which pledged to introduce a free market economy and raise the standard of living. In Jan. 1991 some 15,000 refugees fled to Greece while in March some 24,000 boat people left for Italy. In Aug. 1991 another exodus of 18,000 people for Italy resulted in their subsequent forced repatriation and in a step up in Italian governmental aid for Albania. In Dec. 1991 after continuing food riots resulted in a number of deaths a nonpartisan, Vilson Ahmeti was named to head a new government. On Mar. 22, 1992 landslide elections were won by Democratic Party over the Socialist Party. On April 9, 1992 Sali Berisha became the first democratically elected President in 70 years. In July 1992 local elections were held in which the Socialist Party made gains and held local admistrative control over the countryside while the Democrats continued to hold control over most of the large cities. In Nov. 1992 the a rift developed within the Democrats with the spilt resulting in the formation of a new party, the Democratic Alliance. Also during 1992, the massive humanitarian aid program by the Italian government continued. During 1993, former Communist leader Ramiz Alia, the Socialist Party leader Fatos Nano and most of the former Politburo members were under arrest awaiting trial on charges of abusing their office. Economically, the government had actively pursued its program of stabilizing the economy, although it would still have to rely heavily on foreign aid to ensure the program's successful completion. In Apr. 1993 Pope John Paul II made a historic visit, the first since visit since the last pontiff died en route in 1464.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


CURRENCY: The official currency is the Lek (plural; Leke) divided into 100 Quindars.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


ECONOMY: Gross National Product; USD $1,163,000,000 (1993). Public Debt; USD $861,000,000 (1993). Imports; USD $601,000,000 (1994). Exports; USD $ 141,000,000 (1994). Tourism Receipts; N/A. Balance of Trade; Lek -460,000,000 (1994). Economically Active Population; 1,540,000 or 49.4% of total population (1993). Unemployed; 17.5% (1993).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its main trading partners are Serbia and Montenegro, Czech Fed. Rep., Slovakia, Romania, Italy, Poland, Germany, Greece and France.

MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Asphalt, Bitumen, Cereals, Chrome, Copper, Cotton, Grapes, Olives, Potatoes, Petroleum and Natural Gas, Timber, Tobacco.

MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Agriculture, Cement, Food Processing, Fertilizers, Mining, Petroleum, Refining, Textiles, Tobacco.

MAIN EXPORTS: Asphalt and Bitumen, Clothing, Food, Fruit and Vegetables, Non-Ferrous Metal Ores, Petroleum and Petroleum Products, Tobacco.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


TRANSPORT: Railroads; route length 684 km (425 mi) (1989), passenger-km 752,000,000 (467,000,000 passenger-mi) (1989), cargo ton-km 674,000,000 (462,000,000 short ton-mi) (1989). Roads; length 16,700 km, (10,377 mi) (1989). Vehicles; cars 3,500 (1970), trucks and buses 11,200 (1970). Merchant Marine; vessels 19 (1990), deadweight tonnage 74,648 (1990). Air Transport; N/A.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


COMMUNICATIONS: Daily Newspapers; total of 2 with a total circulation of 165,000 (1992). Radio; receivers 550,000 (1994). Television; receivers 324,900 (1990). Telephones; 49,000 (1993).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


MILITARY: 73,000 (1995) total active duty personnel with 82.2% army, 3.4% navy and 13.7% air force while military expenditure accounts for 8.2% (1993) of the Gross National Product (GNP).

Algeria.

OFFICIAL NAME: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
CAPITAL: Algiers
SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Multiparty Republic with interim military administration
AREA: 2,381,741 Sq Km (919,595 Sq Mi)
ESTIMATED 2000 POPULATION 31,624,000



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: Algeria is located in North Africa midway along the Mediterranean coastline. It is bound by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Morocco to the west, Mauritania and Mali to the southwest, Niger to the southeast, Libya to the east and Tunisia to the northeast. The two mountain ranges of the Tell Atlas and Sahara Atlas divide the country into three topographical zones, (1.) a narrow fertile coastal plain and (2.) a high plateau which is a vast steppe plain that forms a depression between the Tell and Sahara Atlases. The plateau is also covered by salt lakes and salt marshes. (3.) The Sahara Desert which accounts for over 85% of the land area. Most of the Sahara is covered by Hamadas which are rocky plateaux and two great sand deserts, the Great Western Erg and the Great Eastern Erg. The only permanent river is the Chelif River. Major Cities (pop. est.); Algiers 1,507,000, Oran 610,000, Constantine 441,000, Annaba 223,000, Batna 182,000 (1987). Land Use; forested 2%, pastures 13%, agricultural-cultivated 3%, other 82% (1993).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


CLIMATE: The climate of Algeria is divided into three types, (1.) a Mediterranean in the north with dry hot summers and mild wet winters with rainfall increasing from west to east. (2.) A continental in the high plateau regions with higher daily temperatures while rainfall is patchy falling mainly within a short period. (3.) A true desert climate in the Sahara with erratic and spasmodic rainfall. In the summer Algeria experiences hot winds from the south known as the Chehili or Sirocco. The average temperature ranges in Algiers are from 9 to 15 degrees Celsius (48 to 59 degrees Fahrenheit) in January to 22 to 29 degrees Celsius (72 to 84 degrees Fahrenheit) in August.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


PEOPLE: The principal ethnic majority are the Arabs or Arabized Berbers who account for around 83% of the population while the remaining 17% are Berbers. The non-Arab and non-Berber population accounts for 100,000 people mainly of European descent, predominantly French, although there are minorities of Italians, Spanish, Maltese and Corsican descendants. Although Algeria is predominantly a Muslim nation it is one of the few Muslim countries to have a surplus of females and over 50% of the population reported to be under the age of 20.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


DEMOGRAPHIC/VITAL STATISTICS: Density; 11 persons per sq km (28 persons per sq mi) (1991). Urban-Rural; 49.7% urban, 50.3% rural (1987). Sex Distribution; 50.5% male, 49.5% female (1987). Life Expectancy at Birth; 65.8 years male, 66.3 years female (1987). Age Breakdown; 44% under 15, 28% 15 to 29, 14% 30 to 44, 8% 45 to 59, 4% 60 to 74, 2% 75 and over (1987). Birth Rate; 33.2 per 1,000 (1988). Death Rate; 4.9 per 1,000 (1988). Increase Rate; 28.3 per 1,000 (1988). Infant Mortality Rate; 63.4 per 1,000 live births (1987).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


RELIGIONS: The official religion is Islam with 99% of the population Sunni Muslims while Roman Catholics and Jews combined represent less than 1% of the population.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


LANGUAGES: The official language is Arabic which is spoken by approximately 81% of the population, although due to France's long colonial rule French is also spoken with many Berbers choosing it as opposed to the imposition of Arabic. By necessity most Berbers are bilingual and even trilingual as they also have their own language with dialects.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


EDUCATION: Economically active aged 16 or over and having attained: no formal schooling 38.2%, primary 20.8%, secondary 11.1%, vocational 19.7%, higher 9.3% (1989). Literacy; literate population aged 15 or over 6,281,000 or 49.6% (1987).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


MODERN HISTORY - WWII TO 1993: In 1945 an Arab nationalist movement launched a guerrilla war against French rule which resulted in heavy casualties. The eventual ceasefire as well as the withdrawal of the French troops was negotiated by the French President Charles De Gaulle, and as a result some one million Europeans were repatriated. On July 3, 1962 Algeria gained independence and Ahmed Ben Bella, the victor of the resulting infighting, ruled from 1962 to 1965 when an army coup installed Col. Houari Boumedienne as leader. In 1967 Algeria declared war with Israel, broke with the US and moved toward eventual military and political ties with the former USSR. In 1988 some 500 people died in riots protesting against economic hardship and in 1989 voters approved a new constitution which cleared the way for a multi-party political system as well as guaranteed fundamental rights and freedom for the Algerians. After the 1990 municipal elections in which the Front Islamique du Salut (FIS) won a weeping victory, the party leadership began to insist on general and presidential elections in 1991. The government (FLN) responded by promising legislative elections in June, but refusing presidential elections as well. During the year the government continued its market economy and electoral reforms. However, the FIS objected to these electoral reforms claiming they gerrymandered the new consitiuencies in favor of the FLN. In June 1991 a general strike called by the FIS led to fierce fighting between demonstrators and riot police and the country was placed into a State of Emergency which resulted in the postponement of elections. Also resulting from the crisis was the dismissal of Mouloud Hamrouche's government and its replacement by a pragmatic administration until elections in Dec. 1991. In the first round of elections held on Dec. 26, 1991 the FIS won a clear majority, however, before the planned Jan. 11, 1992 second round of elections took place the Algerian army forced Pres. Chadli Bendjedid to resign. A new army-backed regime, invited the political exiled Muhammad Boudiaf to return from Morocco to head the High Security Council (HSC). The security forces dismantled the FIS arresting some 9,000 militants and on Mar. 4, 1992 banned the FIS which resulted in an urban terrorist campaign against the regime. In April, 1992 Boudiaf appointed a 60-man Consultative Council and attempted to create a new political movement, the Assemble Patriotique. On June 29, 1992 Boudiaf was assassinated by a member of his personal bodyguard as a result of his anti-corruption drive and succeeded by Ali Kafi. On July 8, 1992 Belaid Abdessalam replaced Sid Ahmed Ghozali as Prime Minister and in October established special courts and severe punishments in an attempt to halt urban terrorism. During 1993 urban violence continued at the same levels as the previous year with more than 200 security personnel killed. During Feb. 1993 attacks and killings continued against prominent figures which resulted in a mass demonstration in Algiers on March 22. On the same day 18 soldiers were also killed in their barracks at Bougzoul. On Aug. 21, 1993 the HSC forced Abdessalam from office and established a new administration led by Redha Malek. Malek reversed his predecessor's policies by rescheduling foreign debt while maintained a resolute opposition to the Islamist movement. By Oct. 1993 some 1,000 Islamist sympathizers had died with 3,800 before the courts and 240 condemned to death.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


CURRENCY: The official currency is the Dinar (DA) divided into 100 Centimes.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


ECONOMY: Gross National Product; USD $44,347000,000 (1993). Public Debt; USD $24,587,000,000 (1993). Imports; USD $7,770,000,000 (1993). Exports; USD $10,230,000,000 (1993). Tourism Receipts; USD $55,000,000 (1992). Balance of Trade; USD -$260,000,000 (1991). Economically Active Population; 5,711,000 or 22.8% of total population (1990). Unemployed; 27% (1994).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


MAIN TRADING PARTNERS: Its main trading partners are France, Germany, Japan, the US, Italy, the UK, Spain, Belgium and the Netherlands.

MAIN PRIMARY PRODUCTS: Barley, Cattle, Cereals, Citrus Fruits, Copper, Dates, Fish, Grapes, Iron Ore, Lead, Livestock, Oats, Oil and Natural Gas, Olives, Phosphates, Sheep, Timber, Uranium, Vegetables, Wheat, Zinc.

MAJOR INDUSTRIES: Agriculture, Cement, Clothing, Fertilizers, Food Processing, Iron and Steel, Mining, Machinery, Oil and Natural Gas Production and Refining, Petrochemicals, Textiles, Transport Equipment, Wine Production.

MAIN EXPORTS: Crude Oil, Dates, Fruit and Vegetables, Natural Gas, Petroleum Products, Wine.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


TRANSPORT: Railroads; route length 3,836 km (2,384 mi) (1988), passenger-km 1,972,000,000 (1,225,000,000 passenger-mi) (1987), cargo ton-km 2,937,000,000 (1,327,000,000 short ton-mi) (1987). Roads; length 81,648 km, (50,734 mi) (1986). Vehicles; cars 712,700 (1985), trucks and buses 471,500 (1985). Merchant Marine; vessels 148 (1990), deadweight tonnage 1,062,067 (1990). Air Transport; passenger-km 2,248,000,000 (1,397,000,000 passenger-mi) (1987), cargo ton-km 10,622,000 (7,275,000 short ton-mi) (1987).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


COMMUNICATIONS: Daily Newspapers; total of 5 with a total circulation of 1,000,000 (1992). Radio; receivers 3,500,000 (1994). Television; receivers 2,000,000 (1994). Telephones; units 1,068,000 (1993).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


MILITARY: 122,000 (1995) total active duty personnel with 86.3% army, 5.5% navy and 8.2% air force while military expenditure accounts for 3.0% (1993) of the Gross National Product (GNP).